Volume 29, Issue 2 (Spring 2021)                   Avicenna J Nurs Midwifery Care 2021, 29(2): 81-90 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Shamsizadeh M, Shaadi S, Mohammadi Y, Borzou S R. The Effects of Education and Telephone Nurse Follow-Up (Tele-Nursing) on Diabestes Management Self –Efficacy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetic Referred to Hamadans Diabetes Center in 2018. Avicenna J Nurs Midwifery Care 2021; 29 (2) :81-90
URL: http://nmj.umsha.ac.ir/article-1-2137-en.html
1- Instructor, Department of Internal Surgery Nursing, School of Nursing, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
2- Student Research Committee, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
3- Associate Professor, Non-Communicable Disease Modeling Research Center, Department of Biostatistics, School of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
4- Associate Professor, Department of Internal Surgery Nursing, School of Nursing, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran , borzou@umsha.ac.ir
Persian Full-Text [PDF 368 kb]   (1851 Downloads)     |   Abstract (HTML)  (6650 Views)

✅ According to the findings of this study, it can be concluded that nurse telephone follow-up was effective in promoting self-efficacy in patients with diabetes.


Extended Abstract:   (1097 Views)
Introduction

Diabetes is a common and costly disease. Nursing care services, not only are effective in reducing costs but also improve the quality of life and the relationship between the patient and the nurse. The aim of this research was evalution of telephone nursing Follow-up effects on self-efficacy in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Hamadan.

 

Materials and Methods

In this Clinical Trial study, 58 type 2 diabetic patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited in Hamadan diabetes center by simple sampling. Patients were divided into two groups using block randomization. Data were collected using demographic and disease information questionnaire and Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale (DMSES). Intervention in the experimental group was done by telephone nursing for 12 weeks in which phone calls were made during the first month (twice a week) and the second month (once a week). Phone nursing content included emphasis on diabetic diet, timely medication use, insulin injection, recreation and exercise, self care, stress management techniques, communication skills training, and more. The average duration of the call was 10-15 minutes on each call, and the time of phone call was agreed between 8 a.m. and 6 p.m. Patients were told that telephone nursing is free so patients could contact the researcher by phone or text if they had any questions. It should be noted that the patients in the control group received only the follow-up and routine care of the Hamadan diabetes center. Finally, the data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 19 software. 

 

Results

Findings of the study showed that the mean of self-efficacy in both groups before intervention was not statistically significant (P=0.15). After training the intervention group, the mean self-efficacy at one and two months after treatment was significantly improved compared to the control group (P<0.001).

 

Table 1. Distribution of demographic variables in women with type 2 diabetes by experimental and control groups

                            Group
 
Variable
Control
Number (%)
Test
Number (%)
Statistical test
 
Marital status
Single 0 (0) 1 (1.8)  
 
P=0.38
 
Married 43 (79.6) 42 (76.4)
Divorced and deceased spouse 11 (20.4) 12 (21.8)
Education Primary 38 (70.4) 31 (56.3)  
 
P=0.53
Diploma 11 (20.5) 17 (31)
Above the diploma 5 (9.3) 7 (12.7)
 
Employment status
Housekeeper 51 (94.4) 48 (78.3)  
P=0.19
Employed 3 (5.6) 7 (12.7)
Income Less than 1 million tomans 33 (61.1) 30 (54.50)  
P=0.41
More than 1 million tomans 5 (9.3) 10 (18.2)


Table 2. Distribution of absolute and relative frequency of self-efficacy status of women with type 2 diabetes in the experimental and control groups before and after the intervention.

               Scores
Groups
Low self-efficacy
(0-63)
Moderate self-efficacy
(63-126)
High self-efficacy
(126-190)
Control Before intervention N (%) 5 (9.3) 22 (44.7) 27 (50)
After intervention N (%) 4 (7.4) 23 (42.6) 27 (50)
Test Before intervention N (%) 5 (9.1) 21 (38.3) 29 (52.7)
After intervention N (%) 0 (0) 4 (7.3) 51 (92.7)


Table 3. Mean and standard deviation of self-efficacy scores in patients with type 2 diabetes in the experimental and control groups before and after the intervention

Indexes
 
Intervention
N M±SD Independent t-test
Before intervention Control 54 117.35±37.52 P=0.50
t=0.06
Test 55 122.05±36.41
After intervention Control 54 117.53±37.33 P>0.001
t=7.95
Test 5 163.03±19.93


 

Discussion

Due to the chronic nature of diabetes, the patients suffering from this desiease need a lot of educational interventions. Nurses are among the providers of health services who know both up-to-date and scientific information about diabetes and their mission is to care.
Today, technology and topics called e-learning are considered as an effective method in many parts of the world and its use is highly recommended in chronic patients. In fact, nursing is the use of technologies such as mass media and information technology to improve nursing services despite the physical distance between the nurse and the patient (33).
In terms of self-efficacy in the management of diabetes, the results of this study showed that the level of self-efficacy in the management of diabetes in people in various cases including assessing blood sugar levels, examining lower limbs such as legs, doing personal work and diet control increased in individuals after intervention compared with before. To assess the relative extent of this increase, the group of patients received a questionnaire related to self-efficacy in the management of diabetes in relation to the goal of studying once after one month of training and again after two months of training. Findings showed that following continuous follow-up and training, patients can significantly manage their condition. Comparison of the results of self-efficacy in diabetes management after one month of training with the rate after two months of training showed that the average self-efficacy in diabetes management after two months increased significantly compared to the first month of training.
 In their study, Trief et al. (2009) investigated the effect of telenursing on patients' glycemic index and self-efficacy in diabetes management. In this study, remote intervention was able to significantly improve self-efficacy in the management of diabetes and glycemic index of patients. Also in this study, patients with higher self-efficacy in diabetes management had better glycemic indexes and better blood pressure control and eating habits. In fact, self-efficacy in diabetes management as a predictor could have a positive effect on other variables (36).
Zakerimoghadam et al. (2008) in their study examined the effect of telenursing on ​​the rate of adherence to a diabetic diet in patients with type 2 diabetes. The results of their study showed that after the intervention between the experimental and control groups, there was a statistical difference in diet adherence and the independent t-test after the intervention showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of glycosylated hemoglobin. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that nurse telephone follow-up leads to improved adherence to diabetic diet and reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin in patients with type 2 diabetes (38).
According to the results of this study and previous studies, it can be concluded that in addition to timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment, improving the treatment process and prevention of diabetes largely depends on the will of the individual in self-management and related behaviors. 


 

Conclusion

The results of this study showed that nurse telephone follow-up (telenursing) training and follow-up of the nurse in the intervention group compared with the control group improved self-efficacy in the management of patients' diabetes. Also, the self-efficacy in managing diabetes in patients two months after the intervention was clearly higher than one month after the intervention.

 

Acknowledgments

The researchers thank the Research Council of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. The present article, resulting from the dissertation of the Master of Nursing and the Ethics Committee of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences with the ethics certificate IR.UMSHA.REC.1397.439, has confirmed it. Also, this study has been registered in IRCT system with clinical trial number IRCT20120215009014N249.

 

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declared no connflict of interest.

 

Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: Nursing
Received: 2020/01/28 | Accepted: 2020/07/29 | Published: 2020/10/11

References
1. Goldstein BJ, Gomis R, Lee HK, Leiter LA, Global Partnership for Effective Diabetes M. Type 2 diabetes--treat early, treat intensively. International journal of clinical practice Supplement. 2007(157):16-21. [DOI:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2007.01610.x] [PMID]
2. Khorasani P, Eskandari M. Universal epidemiologic in health science. Tehran: Jamenagar, Salemi; 2010.
3. Russell-Minda E, Jutai J, Speechley M, Bradley K, Chudyk A, Petrella R. Health technologies for monitoring and managing diabetes: a systematic review. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2009;3(6):1460-71. [DOI:10.1177/193229680900300628] [PMID] [PMCID]
4. Fan W. Epidemiology in diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Cardiovasc Endocrinol. 2017;6(1):8-16. [DOI:10.1097/XCE.0000000000000116] [PMID] [PMCID]
5. Peykari N, Djalalinia S, Qorbani M, Sobhani S, Farzadfar F, Larijani B. Socioeconomic inequalities and diabetes: A systematic review from Iran. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2015;14(1):8. [DOI:10.1186/s40200-015-0135-4] [PMID] [PMCID]
6. Association AD. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(Supplement 1):S81-S90. [DOI:10.2337/dc14-S081] [PMID]
7. Moosazadeh M, Asemi Z, Lankarani KB, Tabrizi R, Maharlouei N, Naghibzadeh-Tahami A, et al. Family history of diabetes and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2017;11 Suppl 1:S99-S104. [DOI:10.1016/j.dsx.2016.12.016] [PMID]
8. Bate KL, Jerums G. 3: Preventing complications of diabetes. The Medical journal of Australia. 2003;179(9):498-503. [DOI:10.5694/j.1326-5377.2003.tb05655.x]
9. ASCHNER P, GAGLIARDINO JJ, ILKOVA HM, LAVALLE-GONZALEZ FJ, RAMACHANDRAN A, KADDAHA G, et al. Poor Glycemic Control in People with T1D and T2D-Results from the International Diabetes Management Practices Study (IDMPS). Am Diabetes Assoc; 2018. [DOI:10.2337/db18-1656-P]
10. Lin CC, Anderson RM, Chang CS, Hagerty BM, Loveland-Cherry CJ. Development and testing of the Diabetes Self-management Instrument: a confirmatory analysis. Res Nurs Health. 2008;31(4):370-80. [DOI:10.1002/nur.20258] [PMID]
11. Hammad S, Darawad M, Hourani E, Demeh W. Predictors of glycated hemoglobin among Jordanian diabetic patients. Iran J Public Health. 2015;44(11):1482.
12. Chai S, Yao B, Xu L, Wang D, Sun J, Yuan N, et al. The effect of diabetes self-management education on psychological status and blood glucose in newly diagnosed patients with diabetes type 2. Patient Educ Couns. 2018;101(8):1427-32. [DOI:10.1016/j.pec.2018.03.020] [PMID]
13. Abaza H, Marschollek M. SMS education for the promotion of diabetes self-management in low & middle income countries: a pilot randomized controlled trial in Egypt. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):962. [DOI:10.1186/s12889-017-4973-5] [PMID] [PMCID]
14. Sandelius S. Monitoring calls in telephone advice nursing: parents' and telenurses' experiences: Inst för neurobiologi, vårdvetenskap och samhälle/Dept of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society; 2017.
15. Mohammadi N, Soleymani R, Omidi A, Roshanae G. The Effect of Telephone Nursing Follow-up on Self-Efficacy of Females With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Scientific Journal of Hamadan Nursing & Midwifery Faculty. 2017;25(2):61-8. [DOI:10.21859/nmj-25028]
16. Balenton N, Chiappelli F. Telenursing: Bioinformation Cornerstone in Healthcare for the 21st Century. Bioinformation. 2017;13(12):412-4. [DOI:10.6026/97320630013412] [PMID] [PMCID]
17. Ralston JD, Hirsch IB, Hoath J, Mullen M, Cheadle A, Goldberg HI. Web-based collaborative care for type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized trial. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(2):234-9. [DOI:10.2337/dc08-1220] [PMID] [PMCID]
18. Rehling B, Power MR, Power DJ. German deaf people using text communication: Short message service, TTY, relay services, fax, and e-mail. Am Ann Deaf. 2007;152(3):291-301. [DOI:10.1353/aad.2007.0030] [PMID]
19. Wong FK, Mok MP, Chan T, Tsang MW. Nurse follow-up of patients with diabetes: randomized controlled trial. J Adv Nurs. 2005;50(4):391-402. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2005.03404.x] [PMID]
20. Smith-Strøm H, Igland J, Østbye T, Tell GS, Hausken MF, Graue M, Skeie S, Cooper JG, Iversen MM. The effect of telemedicine follow-up care on diabetes-related foot ulcers: a cluster-randomized controlled noninferiority trial. Diabetes care. 2018 Jan 1;41(1):96-103. [DOI:10.2337/dc17-1025] [PMID]
21. Johnson B, Quinlan MM, Marsh JS. Telenursing and Nurse-Patient Communication Within Fertility, Inc. J Holist Nurs. 2018;36(1):38-53. [DOI:10.1177/0898010116685468] [PMID]
22. Hou C, Carter B, Hewitt J, Francisa T, Mayor S. Do mobile phone applications improve glycemic control (HbA1c) in the self-management of diabetes? A systematic review, meta-analysis, and GRADE of 14 randomized trials. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(11):2089-95. [DOI:10.2337/dc16-0346] [PMID]
23. Imani A, Dabirian A. Telenursing Benefits in patients with Diabetes: A Review Article. Adv Nurs Midwifery [Internet]. 2014Sep.17 [cited 2020Nov.25];23(83):65-4.
24. Lippman SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, Lucia MS, Thompson IM, Ford LG, et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA. 2009;301(1):39-51. [DOI:10.1001/jama.2008.864] [PMID] [PMCID]
25. Liddy C, Dusseault JJ, Dahrouge S, Hogg W, Lemelin J, Humbert J. Telehomecare for patients with multiple chronic illnesses: Pilot study. Can Fam Physician. 2008;54(1):58-65.
26. Baljani E, Salimi S, Rahimi J, Amanpour E, Parkhashjou M, Sharifnejad A, et al. The effect of education on promoting self efficacy in patients with cardiovascular disease. J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci. 2012;16(3):227-35.
27. Haghayegh A, Ghasemi N, Neshatdoost H, Kajbaf M, Khanbani M. Psychometric properties of Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale (DMSES). Iran J Endocrinol Metab. 2010;12(2):111-5, 95.
28. Van Der Ven NC, Weinger K, Yi J, Pouwer F, Ader H, Van Der Ploeg HM, et al. The confidence in diabetes self-care scale: psychometric properties of a new measure of diabetes-specific self-efficacy in Dutch and US patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(3):713-8. [DOI:10.2337/diacare.26.3.713] [PMID] [PMCID]
29. Sabet SR, Hadian SZ. Diabetes diagnostic indexes and self efficacy of diabetic patients referred to Nader Kazemi center, Shiraz 2006. IJNR. 2009;4(14):15-21.
30. Glinkowski W, Pawlowska K, Kozlowska L. Telehealth and telenursing perception and knowledge among university students of nursing in poland. Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association. 2013;19(7):523-9. [DOI:10.1089/tmj.2012.0217] [PMID] [PMCID]
31. Orozco LJ, Buchleitner AM, Gimenez-Perez G, Roque IFM, Richter B, Mauricio D. Exercise or exercise and diet for preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2008(3). [DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD003054.pub3]
32. Ripsin CM, Kang H, Urban RJ. Management of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am Fam Physician. 2009;79(1):29-36.
33. Po YM. Telemedicine to improve patients' self-efficacy in managing diabetes. J Telemed Telecare. 2000;6(5):263-7. [DOI:10.1258/1357633001935888] [PMID]
34. Trief PM, Teresi JA, Eimicke JP, Shea S, Weinstock RS. Improvement in diabetes self-efficacy and glycaemic control using telemedicine in a sample of older, ethnically diverse individuals who have diabetes: the IDEATel project. Age and Ageing. 2009;38(2):219-25. [DOI:10.1093/ageing/afn299] [PMID]
35. Al-Ozairi E, Ridge K, Taghadom E, de Zoysa N, Tucker C, Stewart K, et al. Diabetes and TelecommunicationS (DATES) study to support self-management for people with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1249. [DOI:10.1186/s12889-018-6136-8] [PMID] [PMCID]
36. Zakerimoghadam M, Bassampour S, Rjab A, Faghihzadeh S, Nesari M. Effect of Nurse-led Telephone Follow ups (Tele-Nursing) on Diet Adherence among Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Hayat. 2008;14(2):63-71.
37. Mohammadi N, Soleymani R, Omidi A, G R. The Effect of Telephone Nursing Follow-up on Self-Efficacy of Females with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Avicenna J Nurs Midwifery Care. 2017;25(02):61-8. [DOI:10.21859/nmj-25028]
38. Tang T, Sohal P, Garg A. Evaluating a diabetes self‐management support peer leader training programme for the English‐and Punjabi‐speaking South‐Asian community in Vancouver. Diabetic Medicine. 2013;30(6):746-52. [DOI:10.1111/dme.12179] [PMID]
39. Zhong X, Wang Z, Fisher EB, Tanasugarn C. Peer support for diabetes management in primary care and community settings in Anhui Province, China. The Annals of Family Medicine. 2015;13(Suppl 1):S50-S8. [DOI:10.1370/afm.1799] [PMID] [PMCID]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Avicenna Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Care

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb