Volume 30, Issue 2 (Spring 2022)                   Avicenna J Nurs Midwifery Care 2022, 30(2): 116-123 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Kazemi M, Sadeghi N, Mosavi M. Investigating the Relationship between Maternal and Fetal Attachment and Spouses' Functional Health Literacy in Mothers. Avicenna J Nurs Midwifery Care 2022; 30 (2) :116-123
URL: http://nmj.umsha.ac.ir/article-1-2431-en.html
1- Community Health Research Center, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
2- Community Health Research Center, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran , n45sadeghi@yahoo.com
Persian Full-Text [PDF 970 kb]   (631 Downloads)     |   Abstract (HTML)  (1645 Views)
Extended Abstract:   (579 Views)
Background and Objective
Maternal-fetal attachment reflects the relationship between a pregnant woman and her fetus. Increasing maternal-fetal attachment encourages the mother to perform healthy behaviors during pregnancy which leads to a satisfactory outcome and promotes maternal and infant health. The positive relationship between parents increases the level of maternal-fetal attachment. Furthermore, men play a leading role in promoting women's health during pregnancy; however, this role is less considered in maternal and child health programs. Health literacy is a priority in increasing the quality of health services. Low literacy is directly or indirectly associated with a variety of health consequences. The present study aimed to determine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment and functional health literacy in spouses among mothers referred to Ayatollah Taleghani Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran in 2021.
Materials and Methods
The present descriptive-correlational study was conducted on 127 pregnant women and their husbands in 2021. Inclusion criteria included gestational age 6 to 9 months, normal pregnancy, singleton pregnancy, no mental illness of the mother, Iranian citizenship, and literate spouse. The unwillingness of the person to continue cooperation was the exclusion criteria. Data collection tools included demographic survey questions, Health Literacy for Iranian Adults (HELIA) by Montazeri et al. (2014), and the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale by Cranley. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 12) at descriptive and inferential levels. Mean, standard deviation, percentage, and frequency were used at the descriptive level. Also, Spearman's correlation, Kruskal–Wallis test, and t-test were used at the inferential level.
A significant correlation was observed between the variables of maternal-fetal attachment and functional health literacy of spouses. Also, the correlation coefficient is high (79.6%), and in a negative direction. Higher scores for the functional literacy of the spouses mean lower levels of health literacy; therefore, if the functional health literacy of the spouses of pregnant women increases, the attachment of the mother to the fetus will increase.
The present study aimed to determine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment and functional health literacy in spouses among mothers referred to Ayatollah Taleghani Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran in 2021. Acceptance of the maternal role received the highest score among the subfactors of maternal-fetal attachment. The subfactors of differentiation of self and fetus and self-sacrifice were in the next stages, respectively. The two subfactors of maternal-fetal interaction and attribution of specific characteristics to the fetus received the lowest scores, which is consistent with the study of Delavari et al. which concluded that acceptance of the maternal role received the highest and maternal-fetal interaction received the lowest scores. Other possible subfactors may be the mother’s fear of intentional harm to the child or, in some cases, her embarrassment about doing these behaviors. In addition, the results of the present study are consistent with those of Levin et al. (2007). Another result of the study was that a difference is available between the maternal-fetal attachment and functional health literacy of spouses; however, no study, to the best of our knowledge, was conducted to confirm the consistency and inconsistency of the obtained resultsThe importance of functional health literacy of spouses should be considered in macro-economic policy and planning due to the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment and functional health literacy of spouses.
Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: Nursing
Received: 2022/03/1 | Accepted: 2022/04/8 | Published: 2022/05/31

1. Mozayani AH, Sahabi B, Mamaleki M. Study of CyberSpace Development Impact on Women Participation in Iran’s Economy (A Case on Women’s employment and Fertility Rate). Women and Society. 2019;10(37):301-29. [Persian]. [DOI]
2. UNICEF. UNICEF challenges nations around the world to make sure more newborns survive their first days of life. 2018. https://www.unicef.org/wca/press-releases/nearly-386000-children-will-be-born-worldwide-new-years-day-says-unicef [Article]
3. Moshfeq M, Husseini Q. T Futurology Of Iran's Demographic Changes. Marifat I Farhangi And Ejtemaii. 2012;4(13):21-42. [Persian]
4. Abbaszadeh M, Aghayari Hir T, Alizadeh Aghdam MB, Adlipour S. Attitude towards childbearing among married women and men aged 18-49 years: The role of religiosity, family, modern media, and modern rethinking. Payesh. 2019;18(2):173-82. [Persian]. [DOI]
5. Torshizi M. Different dimensions of maternal-fetal attachment behaviors and associated factors in pregnant women referred to health centers of Birjand, Iran, 2012. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil. 2013;16(72):13-21. [Persian]. [DOI]
6. Nowakowski Sims E, Rowe A. The relationship between childhood adversity, attachment, and internalizing behaviors in a diversion program for child-to-mother violence. Child Abuse Negl. 2017;72:266-7. [DOI] [PubMed]
7. Hoseini S, Motaghi Z, Nazari AM, Goli S. Evaluation of effectiveness midwifery counseling with cognitive-behavioral approach to maternal-fetal attachment in pregnant women with unwanted pregnancy. Avicenna J Clin Med. 2020;27(2):85-93. [Persian]. [DOI]
8. Crugnola CR, Ierardi E, Gazzotti S, Albizzati A. Motherhood in adolescent mothers: Maternal attachment, mother–infant styles of interaction and emotion regulation at three months. Infant Behav Dev. 2014;37(1):44-56. [DOI] [PubMed]
9. Azogh M, Shakiba M, Navidian A. The effect of cognitive behavioral training on maternal-fetal attachment in subsequent pregnancy following stillbirth. Hayat. 2018;24(1):71-83. [Persian]
10. Sajjadi Anari S, Zahrakar K, Mohsenzadeh F, Karamnia M, Shokoohi Yekta M, Alavinezhad S. Efficacy of maternal fetal attachment techniques on enhancing mother's attachment to the fetus. Developmental Psychology. 2016;12(47):281-8. [Persian]
11. Fathnezhad Kazemi A, Sharifi N, Simbar M. A review on different aspects of men's participation in antenatal care. Jorjani Biomed J. 2017;5(1):13-1. [Persian]
12. Khani S, HamzehGardeshi Z, bozorgi N. A review on various aspects of male involvement in women's sexual and reproductive health. J Mazand Univ Med Sci. 2017;27(152):99-116. [Persian]
13. Motlagh M, Torkestani F, Ashrafian Amiri H, Rabiee SM, Radpooyan L, Nasrollahpour Shirvani SD, et al. Iranian husbands' involvement in prenatal care, childbirth and postpartum: viewpoints of the mothers. J Babol Univ Med Sci. 2017;19(5):23-31. [DOI]
14. Baghaei R, Najarzadeh M, Saei M, Mohamadi N. Functional health literacy in pregnant women in health centers of Urmia City- 2015. Nurs Midwifery J. 2017;15(5):368-7. [Persian]
15. Jovanic M, Zdravkovic M, Stanisavljevic D, Jovic Vranes A. Exploring the importance of health literacy for the quality of life in patients with heart failure. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(8):1-13. [DOI] [PubMed]
16. Kobayashi LC, Wardle J, Wolf MS, von Wagner C. Aging and functional health literacy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2016;71(3):445-57. [DOI] [PubMed]
17. Saatchi M, Panahi MH, Ashraf Mozafari A, Sahebkar M, Azarpakan A, Baigi V, et al. Health literacy and Its associated factors: a population-based study, hormuz island. Iran J Epidemiology. 2017;13(2):136-44. [Persian]
18. Chehri ME, Najafi Mehri S, Ebadi A, Sarhangi F. Assessing the health literacy level of parents of preschool children. J Pediatr Nurs. 2015;1(4):1-10. [Persian]
19. Shieh C, Belcher AE, Habermann B. Experiences of nursing students in caring for patients with behaviors suggestive of low health literacy: A qualitative analysis. J Nurs Educ Pract. 2013;3(2):75-85. [DOI]
20. Mortazavi F, Mirzaii K. Reason of, barriers to, and outcomes of husbands’ involvement in prenatal and intrapartum care program based on midwives’ experiences: A qualitative study. J Arak Uni Med Sci. 2012;15(1):104-15. [Persian]
21. Cranley MS. Development of a tool for the measurement of maternal attachment during pregnancy. Nurs Res. 1981;30(5):281-4. [PubMed]
22. Delavari M, Mirghafourvand M, Mohammad Alizadeh Charandabi S. The relationship of maternal-fetal attachment and depression with social support in pregnant women referring to health centers of Tabriz- Iran, 2016. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018;31(18):2450-6. [DOI] [PubMed]
23. Jamshidimanesh M, Astaraki L, Behboodi Moghadam Z, Taghizadeh Z, Haghani H. Maternal-Fetal Attachment and its Associated Factors. Hayat. 2013;18(5):33-4. [Persian]
24. Mehran P, Simbar M, Shams J, Ramezani-Tehrani F, Nasiri N. History of perinatal loss and maternal-fetal attachment behaviors. Women Birth. 2013;26(3):185-9. [DOI] [PubMed]
25. Torshizi M. Various aspects of maternal-fetal attachment behaviors and some related factors in pregnant women referred to health centers in Birjand in 2012. Iran J Obstet, Gynecol, Infertil. 2013;16(72):13-21. [Persian]
26. Heidari T, Ziaei S, Ahmadi F, Mohammadi E, Hall J. Maternal experiences of their unborn Child’s spiritual care: Patterns of abstinence in Iran. J Holist Nurs. 2015;33(2):146-58. [DOI] [PubMed]
27. Lindgren K. Relationships among maternal-fetal attachment, prenatal depression, and health practices in pregnancy. Res Nurs Health. 2001;24(3):203-17. [DOI] [PubMed]
28. Rossen L, Hutchinson D, Wilson J, Burns L, Allsop S, Elliott E, et al. Maternal bonding through pregnancy and postnatal: findings from an australian longitudinal study. Am J Perinatol. 2017;34(8):808-17. [DOI] [PubMed]
29. Ossa X, Bustos L, Fernandez L. Prenatal attachment and associated factors during the third trimester of pregnancy in Temuco, Chile. Midwifery. 2012;28(5):689-96. [DOI] [PubMed]
30. Sandbrook SP, Adamson Macedo E. Maternal-fetal attachment: Searching for a new definition. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2004;25(1):169-82. [PubMed]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Avicenna Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Care

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb