Volume 29, Issue 4 (Fall 2021)                   Avicenna J Nurs Midwifery Care 2021, 29(4): 273-283 | Back to browse issues page

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Alborzi M, Masoumi S Z, Soltani F, Kazemi F, Tapak L. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale in Pregnant Women. Avicenna J Nurs Midwifery Care 2021; 29 (4) :273-283
URL: http://nmj.umsha.ac.ir/article-1-2317-en.html
1- MSc Student, Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health , Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Hamadan, Iran
2- Associate Professor, Mother and Child Care Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Hamadan, Iran , zahramid2001@gmail.com
3- Associate Professor, Mother and Child Care Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Hamadan, Iran
4- Assisstant Professor, Mother and Child Care Research Center, School of Nursingand Midwifery, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
5- Assistant Professor, Department of Statistics, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, School of Public Health, Hamadan, Iran
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✅ The Persian version of the questionnaire to assess exercise self-efficacy during pregnancy has good validity and reliability and can measure exercise self-efficacy during pregnancy.

Extended Abstract:   (956 Views)

Proper and adequate physical activity during pregnancy significantly impacts maternal health and fetal development. Unfortunately, no tools are available to measure the self-efficacy of sports activity in Iranian pregnant women.


Materials and Methods

After translating the questionnaire by the forward-backward method, the quantitative and qualitative face validity and the qualitative and quantitative content validity were assessed. An exploratory factor analysis approach was used to determine the validity of the structure. Simultaneous validity of the instrument was also evaluated using the Scherer General Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the internal stability of the sports self-efficacy questionnaire, and the ICC was used to assess the reproducibility



Content validity was performed qualitatively and the corrections mentioned by the professors were applied, and none of the options were removed in quantitative content validity. In order to determine the construct validity of the questionnaire, exploratory factor analysis was performed, and the KMO test value was 0.765. Thus, 37.5% of the variance was explained by the first factor and 14% by the second factor. The Scherer general self-efficacy correlation coefficient for pregnant women was 0.446 with P-value <0.001. Cronbach's alpha was 0.76 for both domains and 0.81 for the whole scale. ICC was also calculated to be 0.99 for the questionnaire areas and the entire tool.


Given the need to provide appropriate physical activity for pregnant women, a suitable tool to measure the level of self-efficacy beliefs for participating in sports activities seems necessary. The tools designed in the present study to measure exercise self-efficacy during pregnancy are judging and thinking of the pregnant woman about her ability to exercise. According to Bandura, due to the difference between self-efficacy and other concepts such as self-confidence, it is necessary to use tools designed and psychoanalyzed to measure the concept of self-efficacy for specific functions or areas [12]. Particular tools have special terms and dimensions that emphasize exclusively measuring the individual's perception of their abilities in the same specific field [26]. For example, in their 2021 study, Amiri-Farahani et al. designed and psychoanalyzed 29 indicators for measuring exercise self-efficacy in the elderly [27]. The psychometrics scale for exercise self-efficacy in pregnancy emphasizes the barriers to sports self-efficacy in pregnant women. One of the dimensions of sports self-efficacy in pregnancy is cognition. Knowing about the expected consequences of the operation and recognizing the importance of the behavior is one of the essential factors in the efforts of pregnant women to achieve an active and dynamic pregnancy through exercise and participation in social activities. Therefore, this dimension is crucial for measuring exercise self-efficacy in pregnancy [28]. Another dimension of the tool designed in the present study is an adaptation to conditions. Situation adaptation refers to an individual's ability to deal with the situation-related challenges posed in this age-old study. Bandura states that privatization has three levels, the most general of which is the activity and the conditions under which it must be performed, which is reflected in the dimensions of the psychometric instrument in the present study [12].
Research has shown that not only is the self-efficacy scale of sports activities a comprehensive and reliable tool for English-speaking people but it has also been used internationally in several countries [29]. Therefore, in this study, the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Sports Self-Efficacy Scale in pregnant women have been investigated.
In this study, the total reliability of the questionnaire using Cronbach's alpha method was higher than 0.70, which was considered desirable. And has an acceptable internal correlation that is consistent with previous studies that indicate the desired validity and reliability of this tool [30].
 The construct validity results of the Persian version of the sports self-efficacy questionnaire in pregnancy in the present study are in line with the results of studies by Damghanian et al. (2017) [31] and Shams et al. (2010) [32]. Damghanian et al. used confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis of variance methods to evaluate the psychometric properties of the pelvic floor muscle self-efficacy questionnaire. They assessed the construct validity and content validity of the questionnaire as desirable. Shamsali Nia et al. also examined the validity and reliability of the exercise self-efficacy questionnaire in the elderly and reported that the self-efficacy questionnaire has good validity.
To evaluate the validity of the exercise self-efficacy construct in pregnant women in Iranian society, confirmatory factor analysis was used by the maximum likelihood estimation method. In this regard, one of the strengths of the present study is the appropriate number of samples with the average age and different gestational ages. This is probably a convincing reason to justify the current study results in the same initial model. In addition, it is the first time that the validity and reliability of the exercise self-efficacy scale in pregnant women have been verified using confirmatory factor analysis based on structural equations in any language other than English. The present study showed that the Persian version of the exercise self-efficacy scale in pregnant women has a two-factor model like the English version, which was in line with the results of research by Mendoza-Vasconez et al. (2018) [33], Bendix et al. (2020) [28], Chen et al. (2020) [34]. The English questionnaire of exercise self-efficacy scale in the United States and Denmark has been used in these studies. The English version of the exercise self-efficacy scale in pregnant women had satisfactory psychometric properties due to its good validity, divergent validity, and good resolution. Due to the proximity of the results with the criteria of fitness indicators, it can be said that the analytical model of the exercise self-efficacy scale in English- and Persian-speaking pregnant women have been supported and approved. Also, Biocomcast confirmation of the two-factor model of the scale of self-efficacy of exercise in pregnant women is in the evaluation of this structure despite cultural differences. In general, these results confirm the validity of the Persian version of the scale of exercise self-efficacy scale in pregnant women.



The Persian version of the questionnaire to assess exercise self-efficacy during pregnancy has good validity and reliability and can measure exercise self-efficacy during pregnancy.


This article results from a master's thesis in midwifery counseling approved by Hamadan University of Medical Sciences (9806264723). We would like to thank the Vice Chancellor for Research of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences and all pregnant women participating in this project.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declared no conflict of interest.


Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: Midwifery
Received: 2021/04/7 | Accepted: 2021/10/2 | Published: 2021/12/21

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