Volume 30, Issue 1 (Winter 2022)                   Avicenna J Nurs Midwifery Care 2022, 30(1): 63-71 | Back to browse issues page

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Hassanpour Esfahani A, Naji S A. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Reflexology Massage and Rose Aromatherapy on Pain Severity in Patients Undergoing Gastric Bypass surgery in Amin Hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 2021. Avicenna J Nurs Midwifery Care 2022; 30 (1) :63-71
URL: http://nmj.umsha.ac.ir/article-1-2375-en.html
1- Community Health Research Center, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
2- Community Health Research Center, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran , sa_naji@yahoo.com
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Background and Objective
Obesity surgery is the most effective treatment for people suffering from this disorder. The patients who undergo this operation are exposed to various painful therapeutic interventions during hospitalization; moreover, postoperative pain is a common complaint among them. The present study aimed to compare the effect of reflexology massage and aromatherapy of rose on the severity of pain in women undergoing gastric bypass surgery in Amin Hospital affiliate to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 1400. Weight gain is caused by numerous factors, including an unhealthy lifestyle, poor diet, lack of exercise, lifestyle changes, and genetic factors. Obesity is a widespread disease and an evolving international epidemic, even if it is not infectious. Obese people are at higher risk of death than people with normal body mass index. Obesity-related diseases include type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, as well as breast and colon cancer.
Materials and Methods
The current study was conducted based on a quasi-experimental design. The statistical population included women undergoing gastric bypass surgery in Amin Hospital affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 1400. The participants were selected via the available sampling method, and the sample size was calculated at 31 cases in each group. The research environment was the surgical ward of Isfahan Amin Hospital, where most undergoing gastric bypass surgeries in Isfahan are performed. The study participants were selected based on available inclusion criteria and then non-randomly assigned to two groups of aromatherapy and reflexology. The subjects themselves selected their group. The inclusion criteria entailed undergoing gastric bypass surgery, alertness, no allergy to drugs or food, absence of seasonal allergies, willingness to participate in the study, a pain score of at least three on the pain scale, no sensory neurological disorder, ability to perceive pain, no skin disease, pain and abnormalities in their foot area, the age range of 1-75 years, and the perfect sense of smell. On the other hand, the exclusion criteria also included the withdrawal of subjects from the study, occurrence of allergies during the intervention with rose extract, and decreased level of consciousness during the intervention. The instrument used to determine pain intensity was the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). In the reflexology group, relaxation techniques were used for six minutes, and the massage was then applied to reduce pain. In aromatherapy, two drops of rose oil were poured on a sterile gauze, and the patient was asked to inhale from a distance of 7-10 cm for 20 min. In both groups, pain intensity was measured using the VAS immediately before and after the intervention. All obtained information was analyzed in SPSS software (version 26) using descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, and frequency) and analytical statistics (Kolmogorov-Smirnov, paired t-test, and independent t-test).
The results of the analysis demonstrated that at a 95% confidence level in both reflexology and aromatherapy groups, the mean pain intensity before the intervention was higher than that after the intervention (P<0.001). The difference between the mean pain intensity before and after the intervention in the two groups under study pointed out that it was significantly higher in the group under reflexology massage (P<0.001). However, none of the subjects were excluded during the study. The mean age scores were reported as 37.68±10.55 and 35.26±8.97 years in the two groups of reflexology and aromatherapy.
The present study sought to compare the effect of reflexology massage and rose aromatherapy on pain intensity in patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery. The results of this study indicated that the mean pain intensity of patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery in the reflexology massage group before the intervention was higher than after the intervention. The results of this study are consistent with those obtained in the present study regarding the type of intervention and confirming the pain reduction effect. By comparing the mean pain intensity difference between patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery before and after the intervention in the two groups under reflexology and rose aromatherapy in the present study, it can be concluded that the pain intensity difference in the reflexology massage group is greater than that in the aromatherapy group. These methods are very easy to use, and patients should be trained on their application to achieve the best results. The simultaneous use of these two methods results in a more effective reduction of pain. As evidenced by the results of the present study, reflexology massage was more effective than aromatherapy in the reduction of pain in women undergoing gastric bypass surgery. This treatment is recommended to all members of the treatment team. Therefore, by approaching complementary therapies, especially reflexology massage and aromatherapy, nurses are in a better position to respond to the increasing demand of their patients for help and relaxation. Furthermore, the disclosure of the effects of aromatherapy as a safe and effective intervention in pain reduction, which is still unknown among our nurses, leads to its simple and practical application in all health centers and patients' homes.
Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: Nursing
Received: 2021/09/5 | Accepted: 2021/11/10 | Published: 2022/03/1

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