دوره 29، شماره 1 - ( زمستان 1399 )                   جلد 29 شماره 1 صفحات 44-35 | برگشت به فهرست نسخه ها


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Gholami Shilsar F, Esmaeilpour-Bandboni M, Basharkhah A. The Effect of Group Reminiscence on Loneliness in Iranian Elderly. Avicenna J Nurs Midwifery Care 2021; 29 (1) :35-44
URL: http://nmj.umsha.ac.ir/article-1-2148-fa.html
غلامی شیلسر فایزه، اسماعیل پور محمد، بشرخواه عاطفه. بررسی تأثیر خاطره‌گویی گروهی بر میزان احساس تنهایی سالمندان ایرانی. مجله مراقبت پرستاری و مامایی ابن‌سینا. 1399; 29 (1) :35-44

URL: http://nmj.umsha.ac.ir/article-1-2148-fa.html


1- کارشناس ارشد پرستاری، گروه پرستاری، دانشگاه علوم ‌پزشکی گیلان، رشت، ایران
2- دکتری پرستاری، گروه پرستاری، دانشگاه علوم ‌پزشکی گیلان، رشت، ایران ، m_esmaeilpour@gums.ac.ir
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 خاطره‌گویی گروهی به‌عنوان روشی پویا و تعاملی می‌تواند سبب کاهش افسردگی در سالمندان شود. در این روش، سالمند شرکت فعال دارد و روابط اجتماعی او در گروه تقویت می‌شود. هر سالمند با تعریف خاطرات خود و صحبت‌کردن در گروه اعتمادبه‌نفس پیدا می‌کند و گاهی با احساس شادی و گاهی با احساس غم به تخلیه احساسات می‌پردازد. این روش در مراکز مراقبت از بیماران مزمن و سرای سالمندان به‌عنوان روشی ارزان و غیردارویی قابل‌اجراست. از سوی دیگر، آموزش این روش به خانواده‌ها برای توسعه سلامت روان جامعه و کمک به بهبود حال سالمند توصیه می‌شود.


چکیده گسترده انگلیسی:   (844 مشاهده)
Introduction

Deprivation of social activities increases the feeling of loneliness among older adults. Reminiscence as the recall of past events, feelings, and thoughts, is one of the nursing interventions in nursing homes. This study aimed to determine the influence of group reminiscence on loneliness of older adults those living in hospitals affiliated with Guilan University of Medical Sciences in 2019.


 

Materials and Methods


In this quasi-experimental study, 32 older who met the inclusion criteria were randomly selected and entered in two groups, intervention and control group. Both groups completed a standard questionnaire as pre-test. After that, intervention group participated in a reminiscence protocol. The schedule was carried out twice a week, eight times and each season last 1 to 1.5 hours.

 

Results


There was no significant difference in loneliness between the intervention and control groups before the intervention. Loneliness (P=0.0001) was significantly lower in the reminiscence group compared with the control group.

Table 1. Demographic characteristics of the elderly living in the nursing home for the elderly and the disabled in Gilan
Variable Reminiscence group (n=16) Control group (n-16) P-value
Age (year), mean ±Standard deviation
Medium (Min-Max)
80.06 ± 8.78
82.50 (90-60)
9.16 ± 74.56
(88-60) 75.50
*0.080
Gender, number (percentage) Man 8(50) 8 (50) **<0.999
Female 8 (50) 8 (50)
Marital status, number (percentage) Married 1 (6.3) 6 (37.5) ***0.080
Single 2 (12.5) 3 (18.8)
The wife died 11 (68.8) 7 (43.8)
Divorced 2 (12.5) 0
Number of children, number (percentage) 0 7 (43.8) 5 (31.3) ***0.538
3-1 2 (12.5) 5 (31.3)
4 and more 7 (43.8) 6 (37.5)
Education level, number (percent) illiterate 12 (75.0) 8 (50.0) ***0.340
Primary 4 (25.0) 6 (37.5)
Tips 0 1 (6.3)
Associate degree 0 1 (6.3)
Job, number (percentage) Employee 1 (6.3) 1 (6.3) **0.670
housewife 4 (25.0) 3 (18.8)
manual worker 2 (12.5) 3 (18.8)
Farmer 8 (50) 5 (31.3)
Freelancer 1 (6.3) 4 (25.0)
Duration of stay (months), mean ±Standard deviation
Medium (Min-Max)
 15.31 ± 7.93
12.00 (32-7)
17.19 ±9.57
12.00 (36-7)
*0.590
 
Mann Whitney Test *
Chi-square Test **
Fisher's Exact Test ***
 

Table 2. Comparison of loneliness in the elderly of group reminiscence and control at the beginning of the study
Variable Scope range M±SD
Medium (Min-Max)
P-value*
Reminiscence group (n=16) Control group (n-16)
Feeling lonely (UCLA-20) 80-20  56.62 ± 7.40
59.50 (66.00-46.00)
55.68 ±3.72  
 55.50 (61.00-50.00)
0.645
Independent T-Test
 
Table 3. Feeling lonely in the elderly of group reminiscence and control at the end of the study
Variable Scope range M±SD
Medium (Min-Max)
P-value*
Reminiscence group (n=16) Control group (n-16)
Feeling lonely (UCLA-20) 80-20 47.68 ± 8.17
45.50 (60.00-36.00)
58.56 ± 5.30
59.50 (66.00-46.00)
0.000
Independent T-Test
 
 
Table 4. Comparison of loneliness in group reminiscence group before and after the intervention
Variable M±SD
Medium (Min-Max)
M±SD
Medium (Min-Max)
Before intervention Before intervention
Feeling lonely (UCLA-20) 56.62 ± 7.40  
59.50 (66.00-46.00)
47.68 ± 8.17  
 45.50 (60.00-36.00)
0.0001
               ⁎Paired T Test
 
Table 5. Comparison of loneliness in the control group before and after the intervention
Variable M±SD
Medium (Min-Max)
P-value
Before intervention After intervention
Feeling lonely (UCLA-20) 55.68 ± 3.72  
55.50 (61.00-50.00)
58.56 ± 5.30  
59.50 (66.00-46.00)
0.038
            ⁎Paired T Test
 

 
Discussion


According to the results of the present study, reminiscence reduces the feeling of loneliness in the elderly living in Gilan nursing home. This finding is consistent with the results of studiy by Sheibani Tezerji, Pakdaman and Hassanzadeh Tavakoli who conducted a similar study with a sample size close to the sample size of the present study on loneliness in the elderly [20]. Chiang et al. reduced the feeling of loneliness in the elderly. They believed that reminiscence helps to better deal with life issues by improving cognitive organization and promoting cognitive function. It can also reduce the feeling of loneliness in the elderly by promoting social interactions and using reminiscence as a hobby for leisure [21].
The score of feeling lonely before and after the intervention was close to 50 according to the tools related to the number, which most likely suggests feeling lonely, and this most likely indicates the intensity of feeling lonely in both groups before and after the intervention. However, the loneliness score in the intervention group decreased significantly after 8 sessions, which indicates the positive effect of reminiscence. In the control group, after 8 sessions, there was a significant increase in loneliness score. Given such results, the use of longer periods of reminiscence seems to be more effective in further reducing the severity of feelings of loneliness in nursing home residents. In Chao study, it was found that after the intervention, no significant change was observed in depression and loneliness in the elderly [24]. In a similar study of the elderly living at home, Koushan found a significant reduction in loneliness and depression in the elderly after reminiscence in the intervention group. He believed that differences in the research population, whether the elderly living in a home or a nursing home, may have led to this conflicting result in these two similar studies [25].
This could be related to the difference in the severity of depression in the elderly living in a home and a nursing home. Heidari's study also showed that there is a significant difference between the two groups in terms of feeling alone. He believes that more loneliness in the elderly living in nursing homes can be due to their social isolation. They lose close relationships with friends and family, and because of the lack of relationships, material and psychological support also decreases [19]. Therefore, it is recommended that a comparative study be performed to evaluate the effect of reminiscence in the elderly living in nursing homes with the elderly living at home. One of the limitations of this research is the time-consuming study and the loss of samples that had less patience. The level of literacy of the elderly was very low and limited facilities could be used to evoke memories. A number of elderly people were not able to attend group classes due to physical and mobility problems. It is recommended that the effect of reminiscence on other aspects of mental health be studied in future studies.


 

Conclusion


As a dynamic and interactive method, group reminiscence can reduce depression in the elderly. In this way, the elderly has an active participation and his social relations in the group are strengthened. Every older person finds self-confidence by defining their memories and talking in a group, and sometimes empties their emotions with feelings of joy and sometimes with feelings of sadness. This method is applicable in chronic care centers and nursing homes as a cheap and non-pharmacological method. Teaching this method to families is recommended to develop the community's mental health and help improve the elderly.

 

Acknowledgments


Hereby, we appreciate all persons who helped us by their valuable comments.

 

Conflicts of Interest


The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
 

نوع مطالعه: پژوهشي اصیل | موضوع مقاله: پرستاری
دریافت: 1398/11/26 | پذیرش: 1399/2/7 | انتشار: 1399/7/10

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