Volume 28, Issue 1 (3-2020)                   Avicenna J Nurs Midwifery Care 2020, 28(1): 57-66 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Erfani A, Shojaei J. Shifts in Contraceptive Use in the City of Tehran, Iran: 2000-2014. Avicenna J Nurs Midwifery Care 2020; 28 (1) :57-66
URL: http://nmj.umsha.ac.ir/article-1-2022-en.html
1- Department of Sociology & Anthropology, Nipissing University,North Bay, Canada , amire@nipissingu.ca
2- Senior Expert (PhD.), Population Policy Studies and Monitoring Committee, Supreme Council for Cultural Revolution, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (5761 Views)
Introduction: Current data on changes in contraceptive use is required to prevent unintended pregnancies. This study aims to study trends, and patterns of contraceptive use from 2000 to 2014.
 Methods: This survey research uses data from three fertility surveys conducted in 2000, 2009, and 2014 respectively among representative samples of 1396, 2,934 and 3012 married women aged 15-49 living in the capital city of Tehran. The prevalence of contraceptive methods was estimated according to women’s socio-economic and demographic characteristics.
 Results: In 2014, 82% of women used contraceptive methods (48% modern methods, and 34% traditional methods). Withdrawal (33%) and condoms (21%) had the highest prevalence, compared with female sterilization (9%), IUD (7%) and Pills (7%). Over 2000-2014, the use of withdrawal and condoms increased by 69% and 20%, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of female sterilization, pills, male sterilization, and IUD decreased respectively by 20%, 42%, 45% and 51% over the same period. The use of withdrawal method increased with women’s age. Withdrawal and condom were used by 67% of contraceptive users, who mostly hold higher education levels, were employed, and lived in upper residential districts. In contrast, users of modern methods, namely sterilizations, IUD and pills, mostly hold lower levels of education and income, were unemployed, lived in the lower residential districts, and had two or more children.
 Conclusion: The increasing prevalence of withdrawal and condom signifies a need for provision of effective family planning education and counseling to prevent unintended pregnancy.
Persian Full-Text [PDF 575 kb]   (1150 Downloads) |   |   Extended Abstract (HTML)  (770 Views)  
✅ The increasing prevalence of withdrawal and condom signifies a need for provision of effective family planning education and counseling to prevent unintended pregnancy.
Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: Midwifery
Received: 2019/04/7 | Accepted: 2019/11/12 | Published: 2020/01/3

1. Bongaarts J, Potter RG. Fertility, Biology, and Behaviour: An Analysis of the Proximate Determinants. New York: Academic Press. 1983.
2. Feeney G. Population Dynamics Based on Birth Intervals and Parity Progression. Population Studies. 1983 Mar 1;37(1):75-89. [DOI:10.1080/00324728.1983.10405925] [PMID]
3. World Health Organization (WHO). Technical Consultation on Birth Spacing Geneva, Switzerland 13-15 June 2005. Geneva, Switzerland. URL: https://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/birth_spacing05/en/ (accessed January 5, 2019).
4. Conde-Agudelo A, Rosas-Bermúdez A, Kafury-Goeta AC. Birth Spacing and Risk of Adverse Perinatal Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis. Jama. 2006 Apr 19;295(15):1809-23. [DOI:10.1001/jama.295.15.1809] [PMID]
5. Haq A, Lallar M, Akhter S, Baba YZ, Ahmad J, Hamid MA. Interpregnancy Interval Raise Odds of Adverse Perinatal Outcome in High Fertility Region Mewat, Haryana. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2014;3(3):598-603. [DOI:10.5455/2320-1770.ijrcog20140934]
6. Hall KS, Steinberg JR, Cwiak CA, Allen RH, Marcus SM. Contraception and Mental Health: a Commentary on the evidence and principles for practice. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2015 Jun 1;212(6):740-6. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2014.12.010] [PMID] [PMCID]
7. Ahmed S, Li Q, Liu L, Tsui AO. Maternal Deaths Averted by Contraceptive Use: an Analysis of 172 Countries. The Lancet. 2012 Jul 14;380(9837):111-25. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60478-4]
8. Erfani A, McQuillan K. Rapid Fertility Decline in Iran: Analysis of Intermediate Variables. Journal of Biosocial Science. 2008 May;40(3):459-78. [DOI:10.1017/S002193200700243X] [PMID]
9. Erfani A. Curbing Publicly-Funded Family Planning Services in Iran: who Is Affected?. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2017 Jan 1;43(1):37-43. [DOI:10.1136/jfprhc-2015-101383] [PMID]
10. Erfani A. Curbing Family Planning in Iran: an Appraisal of Bill 446. BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health. 2015 Oct 1;41(4):317. [DOI:10.1136/jfprhc-2015-101254] [PMID]
11. Erfani A. Tehran Survey of Fertility, 2014: Final Report. Tehran, Iran: National Population Studies and Comprehensive Management Institute, Ministry of Science. Research, and Technology. 2015.
12. Erfani A. Tehran Survey of Fertility, 2009: Final Report, Tehran, Iran: Population Studies and Research Center in Asia and Pacific, 2010. (Persian)
13. Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME). Iran Demographic nd Health Survey 2000 (IDHS). Tehran: MOHME, Iran. 2000.
14. Erfani A. Induced Abortion in Tehran, Iran: estimated rates and correlates. International Perspectives on Sexual & Reproductive Health. 2011 Sep 1;37(3): 134-142 [DOI:10.1363/3713411] [PMID]
15. Erfani A, McQuillan K. The Changing Timing of Births in Iran: an Explanation of the Rise and Fall in Fertility after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. Biodemography and social biology. 2014 Jan 2;60(1):67-86. [DOI:10.1080/19485565.2014.899428] [PMID]
16. Bakht R, Omidi A. Study of Contraceptive Methods Use before the First Pregnancy. Scientific Journal of Hamadan Nursing & Midwifery Faculty. 2008 Nov 15;16(2):32-42.
17. Ahmad Shirvani M, Omidian A. Utilization Rate of Natural Family Planning and its Related Factors. Journal of hayat. 2007 Jun 15;13(3):37-47.
18. Rastak L. Correlation between socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive methods. J Shahrekord Univ Med Sci. 2005; 7 (2) :21-28.(Persian)
19. Amiri P, Amouzegar A, Gharibzadeh S, Kazemian E, Ramezani Tehrani F, Azizi F. Socio-Behavioral and Reproductive Determinants Associated with Contraceptive Method Choice Among Tehranian Women: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Research in Medicine. 2014 Aug 1;38(2):111-9.
20. Erfani A. Levels, Trends and Correlates of Abortion in Tehran, Iran: 2009-2014. International perspectives on sexual and reproductive health. 2016 Jun 1;42(2):93-101. [DOI:10.1363/42e1316] [PMID]
21. Erfani A, Shojaei J. New Evidence on Induced Abortion in Tehran, Iran: Rates, Causes, and Changes. The Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility. 2018;21(3):64-77.
22. Erfani A. Levels, Trends, and Determinants of Unintended Pregnancy in Iran: the Role of Contraceptive Failures. Studies in Family Planning. 2013 Sep;44(3):299-317. [DOI:10.1111/j.1728-4465.2013.00359.x] [PMID]
23. Zaheri F, Ranaie F, Karimeh R, Shahoi R. Unwanted Pregnancy and Associated Factors Among Pregnant Women Who Referred to Sanandaj Health Centers in 2011. The Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility. 2015;17(132):10-5.
24. Erfani A, Yuksel‐Kaptanoglu I. The Use of Withdrawal Among Birth Limiters in Iran and Turkey. Studies in Family Planning. 2012 Mar;43(1):21-32. [DOI:10.1111/j.1728-4465.2012.00299.x] [PMID]
25. Nazarpour S, Âzimi H. Study on the Rate of Using Different Family Planning Methods and Attitudes of Under 25 Years Married Females Towards Family Planning Referring to West Province Health Center of Mazandaran in 2001. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2002 Dec 15;12(37):46-55.
26. Pouransary Z, Sheikh Z, Eshrati B, Kamali P. Prevalence of Contraceptive Use and the Importance of the Husband's Cooperation in Married Women in Iranshahr, 2005. Iranian Journal of Epidemiology. 2008 Feb 15;3(3):55-60.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Avicenna Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Care

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb